Tag Archives: Spanish Prepositions

Spanish Prepositions – Sobre and Tras

We are now going to finish with the last two Spanish Prepositions and some examples in order to clarify this topic.

“Sobre”

sobre= over, about, on top of, above, approximately

 

– To show position of something keeping contact physically (“on top of”, “on”):

Ej: El libro está sobre la mesa (The book is on the table)

     Pon los pies sobre el suelo (Put the feet on the floor)

 

– To show position with no physical contact (“above”, “over”):

Ej: Hay pájaros volando sobre nosotros (There are birds flying above us)

 

– To say “over” in a figurative way:

Ej: El presidente está sobre los ministros (The president is above the ministers)

 

– To express the subject or the topic “about”:

Ej: El libro es sobre inmigración (The book is about inmigration)

     No quiero hablar sobre el tema (I don’t want to speak about it)

 

– To express approximation in time (“approximately” “about”):

Ej: Llegaré sobre las 10 (I will arrive about 10)

 

“Tras”

tras= after, behind (can replace “después” and “detrás”)

 

– To express the idea of “after”, “following” and “behind”:

Ej: Hay un coche tras la casa (there is a car behind the house)

     El perro va tras el gato (the dog is following the cat)

 

We hope we helped with the Spanish prepositions. Those were the last two Spanish prepositions. Hopefully we did not missed any however if you find something missing you can write to us! (Spanish info)

Spanish pronouns – part 3

Spanish prepositional object pronouns

Learning the grammar of pronouns in Spanish is not very complicated as they follow a structure similar to the pronouns in English. The tricky part, at least for English speakers, might be remembering which pronouns to use.

While English uses the same pronouns as objects of prepositions and for direct and indirect objects of verbs, Spanish has a different set of pronouns for each case, and those sets can overlap.

The subject pronouns and prepositional pronouns are identical with the exception of the first-person singular and informal second-person singular forms.

 

As you can probably guess, prepositional pronouns are those that come after prepositions. In a sentence as “Tengo un regalo para él (I have a present for him), “para” (for) is the preposition and “él” (him) is the prepositional pronoun.

 

 

-First person singular:

Preposition: para

Object pronoun: mí

Example: Este café es para mí (This coffe is for me)

 

-Second person singular (informal):

Preposition: en

Object pronoun: ti

Example: Me acuerdo de ti (I remember you)

 

-Second person singular (polite):

Preposition: de

Object pronoun: usted

Example: Esta chaqueta es de usted (This jacket is yours)

 

-Third person singular:

Preposition: hacia

Object pronoun: el, ella, ello

Example: Estoy mirando hacia él (I am looking towards him)

 

-First person plural:

Preposition: a

Object pronoun: nosotros, nosotras

Example: El coche se acerca a nosotros (The car is getting closer to us)

 

-Second person plural (informal):

Preposition: sobre

Object pronoun: vosotros, vosotras

Example: Están hablando sobre vosotros (They are talking about you people)

 

-Second person plural (formal):

Preposition: para

Object pronoun: ustedes

Example: tengo algo para ustedes (I have something for you –polite-)

 

-Third person plural (plural):

Prepostion: de

Object pronoun: ellos, ellas

Example. Este país pertenece a ellos (This country belongs to them)

 

“Sí” reflexive and “tú” “yo” after some preposition and adverbs

 

In the third person, sometimes you can find the pronoun “sí”. This is a special situation an it is used when the subject and the object pronouns refer to the same person. Also, it can be followed by “mismo”, “misma”. It can understood as: pronoun + self (myself, yourself, themselves…etc).

 

Él se cuida a sí mismo perfectamente (He take care of himself perfectly)

Ella se quiere a sí misma (She loves herself)

 

After some prepositions and adverbs you should say “yo” and “tú” instead of “mí” and “ti”. In the rest of the person remain the same. For instance:

 

-Mi amigo escomoyo (My friend is like me)

 

-Según tú, eso no es verdad (According to you that’s not true)

 

-Todos has hecho los deberes menos tú (Everyone has done the homework except you)

 

-Entre tú y yo podemos hacerlo (You and I together can make it)

 

 

The preposition “con”

 

The preposition “con” can work in a special manner when it is next the first and second person singular pronouns:

 

First person singular

 

Con + mí = conmigo

Example: Ven conmigo (come with me)

 

Second person singular

 

Con + ti = contigo

Example: No quiero ir contigo (I don’t want to go with you)

 

Also, we can find a special case in the reflexive form:

 

Reflexive use

 

Consigo (mismo / misma) = himself / herself / itself

Example: Tiene un problema consigo misma (She has a problem with herself)

 

Consigo (mismos / mismas)= themselves / yourselves

Example: Están enfadados consigo mismos (They are angry with themselves)

 

The rest of the grammatical persons remain the same.

We hope we helped with the Spanish pronouns. (Spanish info)

Spanish pronouns – part 2

Spanish direct object pronouns

Direct object pronouns uses

In most of cases the direct object is placed before the verb unlike in English. For instance: Te oigo (I hear you), No los traigas (don’t bring them).

However there are a some exceptions where the direct object pronoun goes after the verb in a attached way.

– For instance in affirmative commands:

Llámale (Call him)

Mírame (look at me)

Vete de aquí (get away from here)

 

– Constructions with the infinitive:

Tengo que irme (I have to go)

No puedo dormirme (I can’t sleep)

 

– Construction with the gerund:

Estoy viéndolo justo ahora (I am watching it right now)

Estoy disfrutándolos mucho (I am enjoying them very much)

Indirect object pronouns

An indirect object is the person or object for whom an action is being or has been performed. It is usually indicated in English by the words “to” or “for.” The indirect object would be the person or object that receives as a result of it. Take a look on the following example.

Marta está escribiendo una carta a su hermana (Marta is writing a letter to her sister)

The subject in this sentence is “Marta,” and the verb is “está escribiendo”. The direct object is “carta” and the indirect object would be “hermana.”

 

You could also say the sentence in the following way:

 

Marta está escribiéndole una carta  (Marta is writing a letter to her)

 

“Le” refers to Marta’s sister. In this sentence, the indirect object noun has been replaced by a indirect object pronoun.

 

Read in the following section the indirect object pronouns:

 

-First person singular:                                    me

Me llamó por teléfono (He/she call me by phone)

 

-Second person singular (informal):                  te

Te escribió una carta (He/she sent you a letter)

 

-Second person singular (polite):                      le

Le dije que no podía (I told you I couldn’t –polite-)

 

-Third person singular:                                    le

Le mandé una foto (I sent him/her a photo)

 

-First person plural:                                       nos

Nos llevaron al cine (The took us to the cinema)

 

-Second person plural (informal):                     os

Os leí un cuento (I red you a tale)

 

-Second person plural (formal):                       les

Les compré un regalo (I bought you a present –polite-)

 

-Third person plural (plural):                            les

Les canté una canción (I sang them a song)

 

We hope we helped with the Spanish pronouns. (Spanish info)

Spanish Pronouns – part 1

PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns are words used to take the place of a noun. Spanish Subject Pronouns are used in a similar way as in English. For example, “I want you to know”. In this sentence “I” and “you” are pronouns (subject pronouns) and they are taking the place of the speaker and the listener respectively. But there is one big difference between these two languages in term of pronouns. In Spanish, these pronouns do not need to be expressed, as the verb itself will identify the subject. Personal pronouns may be divided into subject pronouns, object pronouns, indirect object pronouns and reflexive pronouns.

 

Subject pronouns

Subject pronouns, as you can suggest, are pronouns that doing the function of the subject of a sentence.

First person singular:                               Yo

Second person singular (informal):          Tú

Second person singular (polite):              Usted

Third person singular:                              Él / Ella

First person plural:                                  Nosotros / Nosotras

Second person plural (informal):             Vosotros / Vosotras

Second person plural (formal):               Ustedes

Third person plural (plural):                    Ellos / Ellas

 

The third person

As you can see, there are only two third person singular pronouns unlike in English that we have three: “he”, “she” and “it”. There is a reason to explain this. As you know, all nouns are masculine or feminine in Spanish so “it” will always belong to one of these two groups.

 

The plural forms

As with nouns, the masculine plural form of the pronouns is used to denote a group of people including females. This means that if you use “nosotros”, “vosotros” and “ellos” it does not mean that all the people in that group are men. But if we use the feminine plural form “nosotras”, “vosotras” or “ellas” it means that the group is explusively made of women.

Let’s see a few examples.:

-Nosotros, los españoles, somos simpáticos (We, the Spanish are nice)

(In this case “nosotros” is the pronoun and includes all the Spanish, women included)

– ¿Y tus padres? – Ellos no vienen (- And your parents? – They are not coming)

(In this case, “ellos” includes father and mother even though the word is masculine)

In Spanish, subject pronouns are not frequently used in everyday conversation. This can sound strange because in English, subject pronouns are necessary to show who or what the subject if the verb is referring to. But, in Spanish, the verb has a different ending depending on the subject, providing this information. This makes the subject pronoun not necessary. Anyway, you can use them and it won’t be incorrect but you should be aware to listen the Spanish speakers omitting them in their speeches.

Subject pronouns have differences depending on if you are inSpainorSouth America, and they are a slightly different even within the peninsula.

Subject pronouns uses

– To emphasys:

Yo no voy a hacerlo (I am not doing it)

El no sabe hablar ingles (He can’t speak English)

¿Tú qué quieres? (What do you want?)

– To clarify a misunderstanding:

(-Hoy no va a jugar – ¿Quién, él ?  – No, ella)

– No tiene el dinero – ¿Quién, ella? –Sí, ella)

– For contrast:

Él puede ir pero tú no vas a ir (He can go but you can’t)

Tú no lo sabes pero él sí (You don’t know it but he does)

– To avoid confusion that happens when the same verb ending correspond to more than one grammatical person:

Él era del Barcelona y yo del Real Madrid (He was a Barcelona supporter and I was a Real Madrid supporter)

Yo tenía el pelo moreno y ella lo tenía rubio (I had dark hair and she had it blond)

 

Informal form vs. Formal form

There are two form of address in Spanish for the same word in English “you”. These are “tú” and “usted” (and vos in some parts of South America asArgentinaandUruguay).

The uses of this two words are different in every country but we can generalize this in two groups, the Spanish and the South American. In general we can say that “tú” is the informal way and “usted” the formal. We have a few rules in common for all the Spanish variants for using one or the other:

– The level of familiarity, closeness or the affective or psychological distance between the speakers

– Courtesy (specially when differences in age)

– The level of formality of the situation or conversation

– Issues of power or autgirity

In general, and especially inSpainwe should use the formal or informal way following theses rules:

– To express familiarity, closeness, affection or informality: tú, vosotros / vosotras

– To express courtesy, difference of age, distance, formality or respect: usted, ustedes.

We hope we helped with the Spanish pronouns. (Spanish info)

 

Spanish Prepositions and Prepositional phrases

We are now going to show some of the last Spanish Prepositions and the prepositional phrases.

“Según”

sergún: according to, according with

Ej: Según los estudios el alcohol es malo para la salud (Acording to studies, alcohol is bad for your health)

Según la situación, España es un pais cálido (Depending on the location,Spainis a warm country)

“Sin”

sin: without (This is one of the easiest prepositions to translate, you can translate it for without almost always)

Ej: No me gusta dormir sin pijama (I don’t like sleeping without pyjamas)

     Tienes que aprender a hablar español sin miedo a equivocarte (you have to learn to speak Spanish without fear of making mistakes)

But sometimes you can find sentences where “sin” would not be translated as “without”

Ej: Un chicle sin azucar (A sugarless gum)

     Un disco sin abrir (An unopened disc)

     Este trabajo está sin terminar (This work is unfinished)

Spanish Prepositional phrases

Spanish Prepositional phrases consist of one or more prepositions combined with a verb or a noun. Let see several common examples that might be useful:

– alrededor de (surronding)

Hay un jardín alrededor de la casa (there is a garden surronding the house)

Vamos a corer alrededor de la manzana (let’s run around the block)

– al lado de (at the side of (beside))

La casa está al lado del pequeño pub (The house is at the side of the small pub)

Quedate al lado de tu madre (Stay beside your mum)

– antes de (before)

Haz los deberes antes de jugar (Do your homework before playing games)

Piensa antes de hablar (Think before speak)

– Cerca de (near, nea by)

Hay un bar cerca de aquí (there is a bar near here)

Cerca del mar hace Buena temperatura (Near the seaside there is a nice temperature)

– Debajo de (under, below)

Hay un gato debajo del coche (there is a cat under de car)

Te espero debajo de casa (I’ll wait for you below your place)

– Delante de (in front of)

Hay una iglesia delade del colegio (there is a church in front of the school)

Hay mucha gente delante de mí (there are many people in front of me)

-Dentro de (inside, in)

Coge el boligrafo de dentro del cajón (Take the pen which is inside the drawer)

No hay fruta dentro de la bolsa (there is no fruit inside the bag)

– Después de (after)

Estoy después de ti en la fila (I am after you in the queue)

Me gusta dormir después de comer en verano (I like to speep after eating in summer)

– Fuera de (outside)

Tu padre está fuera del colegio esperándote (your dad is outside the school waiting for you)

Saca al perro fuera de casa porque está sucio(Take the dog out of home because he is dirty)

– Lejos de (long way from)

Mi trabajo está lejos de donde vivo (My work is long way from where I live)

Manchester no está lejos de Liverpool (Manchester is not long way from Liverpool)

– En contra de (against, opposed)

Estoy en contra de lo que dices (I am opposed to what you are saying)

No stoy en contra de los toros pero no me gusta (I am not against the bullfighting but I don’t like it)

– Encima de (on)

Hay un gato encima del tejado (there is a cat on the roof)

No te sientes encima de la mesa que s epuede romper(do not sit down on the table because you can break it)

-al final de (at the end of):

Hay un baño al final del pasillo (there is a toilet at the end of the corridor)

Al final de la historia ganoron los Buenos (The good ones won at the end of the story)

– a causa de / debido a (because of)

Debido a su pequeño presupuesto no pudo ir de vacaciones (Because of his poor  budget, he could not go on holidays)

No hay fútbol a causa del mal tiempo (There is no football match because of the bad weather)

– en favor de/ en nombre de (in/on behalf of)

Me gustaría agradecer al congresista de hoy en nombre de todos los miembros

(I would like to thank today”s speaker in/on behalf of all the members).

– en caso de (in case of)

En caso de dificultad llamen al 091 (In case of difficulty, please dial number 091)

Romper en caso de fuego (Break in case of fire)

– en/a favor de (in favour of)

¿Quien está a favor comer fuera hoy? (Who is in favour of eat outsidetoda?

No estoy a favor de la caza (I am not in favour of haunting)

-en frente de, cara a cara (opposite)

Hay un coche en frente de mi casa (there is a car in front of my house)

Tienes un lapiz justo en frente de ti (You have a pencil right in front of you)

– en lugar de (in place of)

El profesor me dio un nuevo libro en lugar del Viejo (The teacher gave me a new exercise book in place of the old one)

– a pesar de (In spite of)

Mucha gente vendrá esta noche a pesar de la lluvia (Many people will probably come in spite of this bad weatthe rain)

A pesar de todo, me gusta estudiar Español (In spite of everything I like to study Spanish)

– en vez de, en lugar de (Instead of)

Iré en coche en lugar de en bus porque es más rápido (I will go by car instead of bus because it is faster)

Estudia en lugar de quejarte (Study instead of moning)

– a la vista de (in the sight of)

Ella no era culpable a la vista de la ley (she was not guilty in the sight of the law)

A la vista de lo sucedido debemos cambiar de plan (In the sight of the events we should change our plan)

We hope we helped with the Spanish prepositions and prepositional phrases. (Spanish info)