Tag Archives: Spanish Numerals

Spanish Numerals – Part 1

There are two types of numerals in Spanish: cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers.

The cardinal numbers or números cardinals are the numbers that correspond to series: uno (one), dos (two), tres (three), cuatro (four), etc. The second group, the ordinal numbers are numbers referred to the order in series: primero (first), segundo (second), tercero (third), cuarto (fourth), etc.

 

In this post we will study them and we will see that the numerals can be adjectives and pronouns. For instance:

 

– Tengo dos hermanos españoles (I have two Spanish brothers) (Adjective)

– Los dos están jugando al fútbol (the two are playing football) (Pronoun)

 

Cardinal numbers


1 uno (un), una

2 dos

3 tres

4 cuatro

5 cinco

6 seis

7 siete

8 ocho

9 nueve

10 diez

11 once

12 doce

13 trece

14 catorce

15 quince

16 dieciséis

17 diecisiete

18 dieciocho

19 diecinueve

20 veinte

21 veintiuno

30 treinta        31 treinta y uno    40 cuarenta

50 cincuenta  60 sesenta           70 setenta

80 ochenta     90 noventa          100 cien (see below)

The Spelling and gender of cardinal numbers in Spanish

 

– Numbers from 0 to 30 are written as a single word

– Numbers from 31 to 99 are written as two words linked by except for the tens (20, 30, 40, 50,) : treinta y uno (31).

 

Numbers are masculine in general. For instance, throwing a six and a four with the dice in Spanish would be : un seis, un cuatro.

-¿Uno or una?

Uno is replaced by una if it is followed by a feminine singular noun: una libra (one pound)

– ¿Uno o un?

 

uno is shortened to un when it is followed by a masculine singular noun: tengo un euro (I have one euro)

Hundreds:

100 cien 300 trescientos  800 ochocientos

101 ciento uno  400 cuatrocientos 900 novecientos

200 doscientos  500 quinientos

201 doscientos uno  600 seiscientos

Ciento is shortened to cien before a noun or an adjective but not before another number, except mil (thousand). Examples:

cien estudiantes (a hundred students)

ciento una familias (a hundred and one families)

los cien mejores libros (the hundred best books)

ciento treinta casas (a hundred and thirty houses)

ciento un estudiantes (a hundred and one students)

cien mil habitants (a hundred thousand inhabitants)

 

We hope we helped with the Spanish Numerals. (Spanish info)

Spanish Numerals – Part 2

In Spanish, hundreds agree in gender with a following noun:

 

Doscientas mujeres (two hundred women)

Docientos hombres (two hundred men)

Thousands:

 

1000 mil.

2000 dos mil.

3000 tres mil.

10.000 diez mil.

100.000 cien mil.

500.000 quinientos mil.

159.748 ciento cincuenta y nueve mil setecientos cuarenta y ocho.

1.000.000 un millón.

1.500.000 un millón quinientos mil.

25.667.477 veinticinco millones seiscientos sesenta y siete mil cuatrocientos setenta y siete.

The word -mil- is invariable when plural thousands are being expressed. But can appear in the plural in the expression -miles de – (thousand of).

Unlike in English, -mil- is not preceded by an article. For instance:

– Tengo mil dolares (I have a thousand dollars)

To refer to two million or more, Spanish uses the plural of -miles de millones-.

Punctuation of numbers in Spanish

Note when writing numbers in Spanish, a comma is used where a full stop appears in English and vice versa.

 

3.465 tres mil cuatro cientos sesenta y cinco (three thousand four hundred and sixty five)

3,465 tres coma cuatro cientos sesenta y cinco (three point four six five)

Saying dates and telephone numbers

The full stop is not used when writing years even if we are talking about thousands. In Spanish, telephone number are said in tens whenever possible. For instance.

 

91 47 34 28  (noventa y uno cuarenta y siete, treinta y cuatro veintiocho)

 

Ordinal numbers

As we said before, ordinal numbers are those used to indicate the position in series or successions.

Primero (first)

Segundo (second)

Tercero (third)

Cuarto (fourth)

Quinto (fifth)

Sexto (sixth)

Séptimo (seventh)

Octavo (eighth)

Noveno (ninth)

Décimo (tenth)

Rules:

– Ordinal numbers agree in gender and number with the noun they accompany:

 

El primero de la clase (the first of the class)

La primera mujer presidenta (The first woman president)

Las segundas partes nunca son buenas (The second parts are never good)

En los décimos pisos hace calor (In the tenth floors is always hot)

Another two examples that drops in front of a noun:

El primer libro del autor (The first book of the author)

Vivo en el tercer piso (I live in the third floor)

 

Uses

Ordinal numbers are used in Spanish specially in the following cases.

– Numbers form 1 to 9

– Naming kings, queens and popes

– When something is with Roman numbers

– To name centuries

 

We hope we helped with the Spanish Numerals. (Spanish info)

Spanish Numerals – Part 3

Collective numbers and fractions in Spanish

The collective numbers are nouns that represent a certain number of people or objects.

They are much more common in Spanish than in English. Most of the English numerical collective nouns have equivalents in Spanish:

– a pair of pants (un par de pantalones)

– a trio of singers (un trío de cantantes)

– a dozen eggs (una docena de huevos)

– a score of niños (una veintena de children)

You should know that most of the Spanish collective numbers have no single-word English equivalent so there is no way to translate them, you need to learn them by heart:

– Una decena de personas han venido (Ten people have come.)

– Una treintena de alumnos (A group of 30 students)

– Centenares de peces gigantes han muerto en las playas de Tokyo. (Hundreds of fishes have died on Tokyo beaches.)

– Más de un millar inmigrantes llegan cada año. (More than 1,000 people arrive each year).

Rules:

– When accompanying a noun they are followed by de

Una docena de uvas para el día 31 de diciembre (A dozen grapes for the December 31st )

Han suspendido un par de niños (A pair of children haven’t passed the exam)

– Collective numbers are usually singular:

Un millar de personas (A thousand people)

Un cuarteto de trompeta (A quartet of trumpets)

 

Fractions in Spanish can be expressed in different ways depending on the formality of the speech and specially the size of the number. Some examples

 

1/2 (La mitad)

– La empresa redujo a la mitad el precio (The company reduced to half the cost)

– La mitad de los niños son chicas. (half of the children are girls)

– Una mitad y otra mitad hacen uno (One half plus another half make one)

– Predicen la desaparición de un tercio de los linces en España (They predict the disappearance of a third of Lynxes in Spain )

1/3 (un tercio)

 

– Los espaÑoles pasan un tercio de su tiempo libre en internet (Spanish spend a third of their free time connected to internet)

 

– Un tercio de los ingleses van a España en verano (A third of English people go to Spain on summer)

For fourths up to tenths, you can use the masculine form of the ordinal numbers.

1/4 (Un cuarto)

– Un cuarto de los animals australianos está en peligro de extinción (A quarter of Australian animals are in danger of extinction)

– He bebido un cuarto de litro de cerveza (I have drunk a quarter litre of beer)

1/5 (Un quinto)

– El cambio requerirá la obtención de una mayoría de un quinto en la votación final. (The change will require the obtaining of a majority of one fifth in the final vote)

1/6 (Un sexto)

– Dos sextos es igual a un tercio (Two-sixths is the same as one-third)

1/7 (Un séptimo)

– Dos séptimos más dos séptimos es igual a cuatro séptimos. Two-sevenths plus two-sevenths equals four-seventh)

1/8 (Un octavo)

Un kilómetro es practicamente igual a cinco octavos de una milla. (A kilometer is practically equal to five-eighths of a mile)

We could say when the number is high, we will use the suffix -avo which is the aproximately equivalent of the “-th” (or, sometimes, “-rd”) suffix in English. It can be used for “eleventh” and beyond.

But, you should know that this is not the only form to express it. Numbers from 10 to 19 can be expressed as: 11 (décimo primero), 15 (décimo quinto). Numbers from 20 to 29 can be expressed as: 21 (vigésimo primero), 28 (vigésimo octavo), etc.

– Mi amigo vive en el piso décimo tercero (My friendo lives in the 13th floor)

– Es el trigésimo aniversario de mis padres (It is the 30th anniversary of my parent’s wedding)

– Hoy es su vigésimo quinto cumpleaños (today is my 25th birthday)

 

We hope we helped with the Spanish lessons – Numerals. (Spanish info)